The Virgin Birth: what did Mary provide?

Now that the 12 days of Christmas are in full swing, I want to propose what I think will be a controversial reading of Matthew’s account of Jesus’ virginal conception and birth.  Consider it a theological thought experiment if you like, but it is an attempt to take seriously Matthew 1:20.  The first Gospel says no more about the topic but what he does say is clearly suggestive:

“Joseph, son of David, do not be afraid to take Mary as your wife, for the child conceived in her is from the Holy Spirit.” (Matthew 1:20)

Now immediately, we must set aside any modern notions of conception, for though Matthew and his audience would have been aware generally of how babies were made, they were not versed fully in the biology of it.   The Greek word translated “conceived” in most modern translations does not mean what moderns mean when they think scientifically regarding conception.  So we must not insist that it carry the full freight of our biological knowledge.  The word simply means “to bring forth.”  The same word was used earlier in the chapter dozens of times to refer to how fathers bring forth children: e.g., “Abraham was the father of Isaac, and Isaac the father of Jacob” (Matthew 1:2a,b).  The King James read: “Abraham begat Isaac; and Isaac begat Jacob” (Mat 1:2 KJV).virgin-mary-and-jesus

If we assume for a moment that Matthew was aware of at least some of the biological processes involved, would he have thought that Mary provided the ovum or was Mary for him more like a surrogate mother, a vessel in whom the Christ-child, Emmanuel, was destined to grow?  If Mary provided the ovum, who or what supplied the seed?  I suggest Matthew’s account should be interpreted as making Mary Jesus’ surrogate mother not his biological mother.

First, it is clear that Matthew does not see her pregnancy as a sexual act.  In fact, the way he tells the story it is obvious he is trying to distance this account from any notion of sexual intercourse.  Perhaps that is because during his days charges were being made by Jesus’ opponents about his legitimacy; or more likely in my view, Matthew had a theological and apologetic purpose.

According to the first evangelist, Mary is a virgin and stays a virgin up to the time of Jesus’ birth (Catholics and many other faithful believers say forever).  Furthermore, the child which will come forth from her is “from the Holy Spirit” (likely a genitive of source governed by the Greek preposition ek).  Matthew must have been aware of Greek myths and pagan stories of gods coming down and having sexual relations with women and giving birth to semi-divine beings (e.g., Hercules).  His account of Jesus’ miraculous birth is meant to distance Jesus’ origins as far as possible from these pagan notions.  That which is in Mary is from the Holy Spirit.  Full stop.  It is the work of God in her from start to finish.

Reading Matthew’s account in this way makes it possible to view Jesus as a new Adam in line with other NT writers (e.g., Paul in Romans 5, 1 Corinthians 15 and the Gospel of Luke in particular).  The genealogy of the third Gospel (Luke 3) begins with Jesus and traces his lineage all the way back to Adam (cf. Matthew’s geneaology which begins with Abraham and ends with Jesus: Matthew 1).  Jesus is therefore the Son of Adam, who is none other than the Son of God..  The God who said, “Let there be light” and light “became” can surely say, “Let there be a child in the womb of my loyal servant, Mary,” and make it so.  Adam was the product of adamah (Hebrew for “earth”) and the breath (Spirit) of God (Genesis 1-3).  Jesus, son of Mary, was the product of the Holy Spirit, according to Matthew.  Mary did not provide the biological raw materials. What she did provide–by common agreement with God–was a nurturing place for the Christ child to grow and develop.  Natalogists can explain to us all that the woman’s body provides a child that grows within her.  Needless to say, “we are wonderfully made.”

Now some may wonder whether reading Matthew’s account in the way I propose detracts from Jesus’ full humanity.  How could Jesus be fully human if he did not have a biological mother?  Well was Adam “fully human”?  He had no mother.  His wife was to become the mother of all the living.  God sculpted Adam from the earth and breathed into him the breath of life and he became a living soul, fully human.  The analogy I suggest we consider here is new creation and new Adam.  What was in Mary was “from the Holy Spirit” start to finish.

Now if we take Mary’s role as surrogate rather than biological mother, we do not detract one bit from her ultimate significance in the story of salvation.  She remains the virgin mother in whom a miracle has taken place to bring forth a son who is properly called “Emmanuel” (God with us).  All of the honor due Mary as theotokos (“the Mother of God”) is not set aside by this reading of Matthew.

11 responses

  1. People in the ANE do not seem to have an idea of an “egg.” This knowledge becomes available only after the invention of the microscope. Ancients saw the women as providing the “ground” in which the seed could be nourished and flourish. Hence, a women who was unable to become pregnant was deemed “barren” (an agricultural term). Matthew’s account is consistent within a pre-modern understanding of biology. Nevertheless, the article is both thoughtful and worth consideration.

  2. It’s contradictory, isn’t it? They had no conception 🙂 of “egg,” and yet the early Church believed that Jesus derived his humanity from Mary. This shows me clearly that sometimes Theology derived from the Gospels is better than what the surrounding cultures taught, esp. on matters of sexuality and gender. BTW, I’ve taught for years that if you adopt the understanding that God was creating a 2nd Adam in Luke’s account (suggested by the genealogy which names Adam as “son of God), then there is no need to go into a lot of Fundamentalist defenses of the Virgin Birth. It has a different context in Luke.

    • Their lack of the conception of an egg is precisely why the text says what it says. There is no other meaning to take from it. Jesus was her son. Period. How or what would it have said to communicate such a concept when it didn’t exist? Also, this is not necessary either way for Jesus to be the New Adam. However, how can Jesus be the promised seed of a woman (closest thing we have to a woman’s egg in scripture) if he is…not of the seed of the woman?

  3. Pingback: Biblical Studies Carnival XCIV: December 2013 | Cataclysmic

  4. Interesting article. Possibly true. But if Mary is truly “just” a surrogate, then what really is her relationship to Jesus? My understanding from the “conflicting”, but necessary genealogies found in Matthew and Luke is that one traces Jesus lineage to David through Joseph and the other through Mary. Jesus had to have a lineage through Joseph to establish his rightful, legal claim to David’s throne. But He also had to have a lineage through Mary because of God’s promise to Jeconiah that none of his descendants would rule on the throne of David.

    • shane oneill says: “But if Mary is truly “just” a surrogate, then what really is her relationship to Jesus?”

      I think it would be difficult to convince Mary that Jesus was not her son.

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  6. No one today should believe that virgins magically have babies, that humans walk on water, or that dead men walk out of their graves to eat broiled fish sandwiches with their former fishing buddies. The whole Christian story is superstitious nonsense.

    If there is a Creator, he/she/it gave us a brain. Let’s use it! Trust in reason and science, not in the tall tales of ancient, middle-eastern holy books.

    • Every time I make a choice for a rightful life, I feel it as a choice for new life. Every time I choose for refugees rather than kings, I feel like choosing another path. Every time I hope for love, rather than terror, I feel like I choose for new born energy. Every time I choose to help a child, rather than earn more money, I feel as if that is the birth of a piece of a new world.

      Mary saw this righteous way a long time before Christians even existed. That is what I call a choice for new life: a birth.

      Reason & science? Great stuff. But let’s not forget the stories, myths and experiences of our anscestors. We might just learn something from it.

  7. Good article. Mary was the “surrogate” mother of Jesus. God totally avoided any “taint” of original sin from passing on from Mary to Jesus by either created both the male gamete (sperm) and the female gamete (egg) or created the zigote (pre-embryo). This may explain why Jesus never referred to Mary as “mother” but rather “woman!”

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